Theory:

Mesolithic Culture in Tamil Nadu
Although there is not enough evidence of Upper Palaeolithic culture in Tamil Nadu, Mesolithic culture (which predates the Neolithic) can be found in several places. Evidence found at Chennai, North Arcot, Dharmapuri, Salem, Coimbatore, Ariyalur, Tiruchirappalli, Pudukkottai, Madurai, Sivagangai, Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari are related to Mesolithic culture. People who lived in parts of Athirampakkam and Gudiyam cave used microliths(tiny geometric-form tools commonly fixed in the tip of spear, arrows and other hunting tools) small-stone artefacts. Flint is a type of quartz stone that used to rub and make fire. Chert is a silicon dioxide rock. Its small sharp parts used in making composite tools. They used it for hunting, to cut the animals, to pierce the wooden and animal skins. The main occupation of the people was hunting, gathering fruits, nuts and roots.
 
Scrapers are tools used for scraping surfaces. Like side scraper, round scraper and end scraper have various usage styles on cutting and shaping the rock stone and converting them to the final tool. Triangles, as the name reveals, the tools are triangular in shape. It is used as projecting edges fixed in the harpoons for hunting whales.
Lunates are in a crescent shape. They were used as compound tools after mounting to a handle.
 
screenshot_03microliths.jpg
Microliths
 
Microlith_in_hand.jpg
Scraper tool
 
Articles found at Chennai, North Arcot, Dharmapuri, Salem, Coimbatore, Ariyalur, Tiruchirappalli, Pudukkottai, Madurai, Sivagangai, Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari of Tamil Nadu, are shows the Evidence of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers existence. The red sand dunes “teris” artefacts found near Thoothukudi were considered from the microlithic age.
Neolithic Culture in Tamil Nadu
Neolithic Culture in Tamil Nadu
The New Stone Age is the age during which human civilisation has started blooming. Domesticated animals and cultivated crops have been seen during this age in Tamil Nadu. Unlike earlier stone ages, the Neolithic people used polished tools. Stone axes which are also known as Celts, are used for various works. Cattle growing was their primary occupation. They lived in small settlements with dwellings made of thatched roof and clay plastered walls. Proof of Neolithic period village is found at Payyampalli in Vellore district and a few sites in the Dharmapuri region.
 
Payyampalli, a village in Vellore district of Tamil Nadu, seems to be a significant place of evidence, from where notable use of pottery, domestication of crops like horse gram and green gram practised. Most of the Neolithic period activities are widely found on this site. Neolithic people possibly devised a slow wheel called turn-table and made the first pottery out of hand. In the process of burnishing, the pottery was polished with pebbles.
Reference:
https://rogergrace.webmate.me/SARC/type/microliths_files/screenshot_03microliths.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microlith#/media/File:Microlith_in_hand.jpg