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Theory:

The pattern of rhymes at the ending of each line in a poem is called a rhyme scheme. Letters (A,B,C...) are usually used to express which lines rhyme. Verses that are designated with the same letter are said to rhyme with each other. It is also known as an arrangement of rhymes in a stanza or a poem.
Example:
For easier understanding of the concept, let us take a famous nursery rhyme, written by Jane Taylor as an example.
 
Twinkle twinkle little star,
How I wonder what you are.
Up above the world so high
Like a diamond in the sky.
 
We see that the first two lines rhyme with each other (star-are); the second two lines rhyme with each other (high-sky). Let us name each line as \(A\), \(B\) depending on the words that rhyme with each other.
 
Twinkle twinkle little star,
A
How I wonder what you are. A
Up above the world so high,B
Like a diamond in the sky. B
 
It can thus be seen that this poem follows \(AABB\) pattern.
Rhyme scheme of the poem "Fire and Ice":
Some say the world will end in fire
A
Some say in ice.
B
From what I’ve tasted of desire
A
I hold with those who favour fire.
A
But if it had to perish twice,
B
I think I know enough of \(\color{red}{\text{hate}}\)
\(\color{red}{\text{C}}\)
To say that for destruction ice
B
Is also \(\color{red}{\text{great}}\)
\(\color{red}{\text{C}}\)
And would suffice.
B
It can thus be seen that the poem, "Fire and Ice",  follows \(ABAABCBCB\) pattern.