A figure of speech is a word or phrase, that deviates from the ordinary language, in such a way that it has a different meaning from the original written meaning in the poem. There are many types of figure of speech in poetry such as Metaphor, Personification, Simile etc.
A metaphor is a figure of speech, that is used to make comparisons between two things that are completely dissimilar and not related. Although the words are dissimilar, there can be a connection or link to the compared word. Unlike a simile which compares two things directly with words such as 'like' or 'as', metaphor is an indirect comparison. In the sentence "The classroom was a zoo", the classroom is compared to a totally dissimilar place like a zoo, and yet it gives the implied meaning that the classroom was in chaos and disorder like a zoo.
The classroom was a zoo
1. He is a night owl.
Owls generally do not sleep at night and therefore, a person who is awake at night is compared to an owl.
2. The storm was a raging bull.
A raging bull is fast, dangerous and does not look around to see who is getting affected. A storm which is similar to the bull is compared here to give the effect that it was dangerous.
3. He is a shining star.
A shining star, with its bright light stands apart from the rest of the group. A person who is outstanding and performs well is a shining star.
4. Laughter is the music of soul.
Music is always pleasant and gives hope. Therefore laughter is said to be the hope giver to the soul.