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Theory:

A post office is a public facility and a retailer that provides mail services, such as accepting letters and parcels, providing post office boxes, and selling postage stamps, packaging, and stationery. The chief administrator of a post office is called a postmaster
Post offices may offer additional services, which vary by country. These include
  • providing and accepting government forms (such as passport applications),
  • and processing government services and fees (such as road tax, postal savings, or bank fees).
Post office in India
The postal system in India is called India Post. It is a statutory body in India, which is under the ownership of the Department of Post, Ministry of Communications of the Government of India. Generally called "the Post Office" in India, it is the most widely distributed postal system in the world. Also, with \(1,56,721\) post offices spread across the country (as of \(31.03.2020\)), it is the largest postal network in the world.
What is its primary function?
The primary function of Post Office is collection, processing, transmission and delivery of mail. All postal articles whose contents are in the nature of message can be classified as mail which includes Letters, Postcards, Inland Letter Cards, Packets, Ordinary, Registered, Insured, Value Payable articles and Speed Post.
What are the other functions of Post Office?
Apart from delivering mail, Post Office is involved in the following:
  • remitting money by money orders
  • accepting deposits under Small Savings Schemes
  • providing life insurance coverage under Postal Life Insurance (PLI) and Rural Postal Life Insurance (RPLI)
  • and providing retail services like bill collection, sale of forms, etc.
How to send a mail via India Post?
To send an ordinary mail within the country, 
  1. Place your letter inside an envelop.
  2. Write "From" address on the top left of the envelop. This is the sender's address, i.e., your address. It is also recommended that you include your contact number.
  3. Write “To” address under the "from address", i.e., on the bottom centre of the envelope. This is the address of the person you are sending the letter to. Again, it is recommended that you include the receiver's contact number.
  4. Affix a stamp on the top right corner of your envelop. For an ordinary letter that weighs not more than \(20\) gms, you will have to affix a stamp that costs \(5\) rupees. For every additional 20gms or fraction thereof, you will have to place an additional stamp worth 5 rupees. You can get the stamps from the post office.
  5. Finally, drop your letter into the post box situated in the post office or elsewhere.
 
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Post box
 
Important!
* The addresses and the stamps should go on the face (the front side) of the envelop.
* PIN, a 6 digit number, is critical while sending a mail. So, make sure the your addresses are complete with their respective PINs.