Meanings of the difficult words from the lesson "Nelson Mandela: A Long Walk to Freedom":
 
Sl. No.
Words
Meanings
1
DawnThe first appearance of light in the sky before sunrise; to begin a day
2
BesiegeTo surround with a huge mass of something
3
DignitaryA person considered to be important because of high rank or office
4
SandstoneSedimentary rock consisting of sand or quartz grains cemented together, typically red, yellow, or brown in colour
5
Amphitheatre
A semicircular seating gallery in a theatre; a very large auditorium
6
Pretoria
A city in and the administrative capital of the Republic of South Africa
7
DecadeA period of ten years
8
WhiteBelonging to or denoting a human group having light-coloured skin (chiefly used of peoples of European extraction)
9
SupremacyThe state or condition of being superior to all others in authority, power, or status
10
RainbowA wide range of related and typically colourful things
11
DemocraticRelating to or supporting democracy or its principles (Democracy is a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives.)
12
RacialRelating to the major groupings into which humankind is sometimes divided on the basis of physical characteristics or shared ancestry
13
AutumnThe season between summer and winter
14
PodiumA small platform on which a person may stand to be seen by an audience, as when making a speech or conducting an orchestra
15
Swear in (Past: Sworn in)To induct into office by administration of an oath
16
Deputy
A person who is given the power to do something instead of another person, or the person whose rank
17
PledgeA solemn promise or undertaking
18
UpholdMaintain a custom or practice
19
ConstitutionA body of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is acknowledged to be governed
20
Confer
To give an honor, official title, or ability to someone
21
GloryHigh renown or honour won by notable achievements
22
Liberty
The state of being free within society from oppressive restrictions imposed by authority on one's way of life, behaviour, or political views
23
Extraordinary
Very unusual or remarkable
24
HumanityHuman beings collectively; the quality of being humane
25
PrivilegeA special right, advantage, or immunity granted or available only to a particular person or group
26
DistinguishVery successful, authoritative, and commanding great respect
27
EmancipationThe fact or process of being set free from legal, social, or political restrictions
28
Bondage
The state of being a slave
29
DeprivationThe lack or denial of something considered to be a necessity
30
DiscriminationThe unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people, especially on the grounds of race, age, sex, or disability
31
OppressionProlonged cruel or unjust treatment or exercise of authority
32
GloriousDeserving great admiration, praise, and honour
33
ReignThe period during which someone or something is predominant or pre-eminent
34
Array
An impressive display or range of a particular type of thing
35
TroopSoldiers or armed forces
36
PrecisionThe quality, condition, or fact of being exact and accurate
37
BedeckTo decorate or cover
38
Unmindful To be not conscious or aware
39
ChevronA V-shaped line or stripe, especially one on the sleeve of a uniform indicating rank or length of service
40
Impala
A graceful antelope often seen in large herds in open woodland in southern and East Africa
41
OverwhelmTo have a strong emotional effect on
42
PatchTo restore peaceful or friendly relations after a quarrel or dispute
43
Overturn
To abolish, invalidate, or reverse (a previous system, decision, situation, etc.
44
PatriotA person who vigorously supports their country and is prepared to defend it against enemies or detractors
45
WroughtMade or fashioned in the specified way
46
Apartheid(In South Africa) a policy or system of segregation or discrimination on grounds of race
47
BrutalitySavage physical violence; great cruelty
48
ComradeA colleague or a fellow member of an organization
49
ResilienceThe capacity to recover quickly from difficulties; toughness
50
Defy (defies)
To openly resist or refuse to obey
51
TriumphA great victory or achievement
52
Grim (grimmest)
Very serious or gloomy
53
Extinguish
Put an end to; to destroy
54
Reassure
To say or do something to remove the doubts or fears of (someone)
55
Obligation
An act or course of action to which a person is morally or legally bound; a duty or commitment
56
Inevitably
as is certain to happen; unavoidably
57
Rip
Tear or pull (something) quickly or forcibly away from something or someone
58
Humanity
Human beings collectively
59
Humane
Having or showing compassion or benevolence
60
Inclination
A person's natural tendency or urge to act or feel in a particular way; a disposition
61
Twilight
A period or state of obscurity, ambiguity, or gradual decline
62
Rebellion
The action or process of resisting authority, control, or convention
63
Illusion
An instance of a wrong or misinterpreted perception
64
Transitory
Not permanent
65
Johannesburg
A city in South Africa
66
Yearn
Have an intense feeling of longing for something, typically something that one has lost or been separated from
67
Curtailed
Impose a restriction on
68
Abide
To accept or act in accordance with (a rule, decision, or recommendation)
69
Attorney
A person, typically a lawyer, appointed to act for another in business or legal matters
70
Virtuous
Having or showing high moral standards
71
Monk
A member of a religious community of men typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience
72
Indivisible
Unable to be divided or separated
73
Prejudice
Preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience