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A phrase is a group of words that are a part of a sentence. It works together to give a meaning, but cannot stand on its own as a complete sentence. It does not have a subject and/or a verb.
Walking across the lane
On his feet
Three cute kittens
Of Ramya
These group of words give meaning, but does not have subject and verb together and hence cannot make a complete sentence.
Subject - Person or thing that is being spoken of, or does the action in a sentence.
Verb - The action that is being performed.
Object - Receives the action.
Direct object - What the subject acts upon.
Indirect object - Who receives the action.
Ram gave him a car.
Ram - Subject
Gave - Verb
Him - Indirect object
Car - Direct object
1. Noun Phrase:
A noun is a name, place, thing or animal. A noun phrase is a noun and any word that modifies the noun in the sentence. The modifiers can even be articles, prepositions, adjectives and pronouns. A noun phrase can be a subject, direct/indirect object, or the object of a preposition.
i. The blue house is mine. - the blue house is the noun phrase. Here the noun phrase is the subject.
2. Verb Phrase:
It has one verb and other words that modify the verb.    
i. The teacher put the book in the bag.
Put the book in the bag is a verb phrase. It consists of the verb 'put' and its dependents but not the subject 'The Teacher'.
A phrasal verb is a verb that consists of two or three words. They do not have the same meaning, and they behave differently grammatically.
They turned down my offer.
John switched on the radio.