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Theory:

A participle is a verb form that acts as an adjective in a sentence. It is either the present particle or the past participle.
Present participle- the verbs formed ending with ing
Example:
1. smoking
2. dancing
3. reading
4. kicking
Past participles- the verb formed ending with -ed, -t, -en, and -n
Example:
1. kicked
2. baked
3. learnt
4. broken
5. risen
A participle phrase is a group of words that starts with a participle and works as an adjective in a sentence.
Example:
1. The man jumping in happiness won a car in the lottery.
jumping in happiness- participle phrase
jumping- present participle
 
Here the participial phrase starts with a present participle, and this entire phrase gives the information about the noun. Also, jumping in happiness acts as an adjective in the sentence and modifies the noun.
 
2. Did you check out the video made by my sister?
 made- past participle
made by my sister- participle phrase
 
Here the participial phrase starts with a past participle, and this entire phrase gives the information about the noun. Also made by my sister acts as an adjective in the sentence and modifies the noun sister.
 
3. Devastated by the news, he broke down in tears.
Devastated- past participle
Devastated by the news-participle phrase
 
Here the participial phrase starts with a past participle, and this entire phrase gives the information about the noun. Also, devastated by the news acts as an adjective in the sentence and modifies the noun he.
Participle phrases would come at the beginning, middle or end. When it comes to the beginning, there are two things to be noted. Separate the participle phrase from the rest of the sentence using a comma. Always place the noun or pronoun just after the participle phrase. If you did not do it, it would be known as a misplaced modifier.
Example:
1. Feeling tired, the book was placed on the shelf by Jessie.
Is the book “feeling tired”?
 
Alternative: Feeling tired, Jessie placed the book on the shelf.
Ah, Jessie is “feeling tired”!
 
2. Built with expensive materials, he bought a shirt.
Is he built with expensive materials?
 
Alternative: He bought a shirt built with expensive materials.
The shirt is made up of expensive materials.
 
3. Did you see a girl near your house fighting with your mother?
Is the house fighting with your mother?
 
Alternative: Did you see a girl fighting with your mother near your house.
A girl is fighting with his/her mother.
Participle clauses are non-finite clauses. To shorten the main clause, they use a present participle or a past participle. Participle clauses are commonly used in written English because they allow for the addition of information without requiring the use of long or complicated sentences.
Example:
1. Having been cut, her hair looked strange.
2. Have you ever seen anyone cutting their hair this way?
Participle clauses can be used to shorten passive and active sentences.
Active Sentences:
In the active sentences, use the present participle '-ing' to indicate that the two actions are taking place simultaneously.
Example:
1. Holding the hair-dryer in her left hand, Kala cut her hair with the scissors in her right hand.
Kala was holding the hair-dryer in her left hand and cutting her hair with the scissors in her right hand.
Use the perfect participle to show that the action in the participle clause took place before the action happened in the main clause.
Example:
2. Having washed her hair, Kala came for the hair-dryer and scissors.
After Kala had washed her hair, she came for the hair-dryer and scissors. 
Passive Sentences
We use the past participle to shorten the passive clause.
Example:
1. Blown to the right by the hair-dryer, her hair could easily be cut.
Her hair was blown to the right by the hair-dryer and could easily be cut.
 
Some of the participial phrases from the lesson "A Truly Beautiful Mind" are:
 
1. Einstein became a gifted amateur violinist, maintaining this skill throughout his life.
2. Letters survive in which they put their affection into words, mixing science with tenderness.
3. Einstein got ever more involved in politics, agitating for an end to the arms buildup.