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Theory:

     Sergei’s eyes fell on the man’s overshoes, one of which was high and the other low, and he suddenly remembered something.

     “Look here, it seems to me I met you the day before yesterday in Sadovya Street,” he said; “but you told me then that you were a student who had been expelled, and not a village schoolteacher. Do you remember?”

     “N-no, that can’t be so,” mumbled the beggar, taken aback. “I am a village schoolteacher, and if you like I can show you my papers.”

     “Have done with lying! You called yourself a student and even told me what you had been expelled for. Don’t you remember?”
 
     Sergei flushed and turned from the ragged creature with an expression of disgust.
 
     “This is dishonesty, my dear sir!” he cried angrily. “This is swindling — I shall send the police for you, damn you!”

     “Sir!” he said, laying his hand on his heart, “the fact is I was lying! I am neither a student nor a schoolteacher. All that was fiction. Formerly I sang in a Russian choir and was sent away for drunkenness. But what else can I do? I can’t get along without lying. No one will give me anything when I tell the truth, what can I do?”
Explanation:
 
While looking at the beggar, Sergei’s eyes fell on the man’s overshoes. One of his shoe heels seemed to be low, and the other seemed to be high. On seeing the shoes, suddenly Sergei remembered about something. Sergei informed him that he had seen him the day before on Sadovya Street. He said that the beggar had told him that he was a student who was sent out from the institution and not a village schoolteacher. It means that the beggar was telling different stories at varying places. Later, Mr Sergei asked the beggar if he remembered the stories told by him.

The beggar was shocked when he heard that from Mr Sergei and whispered that it couldn’t be. He repeated that he was a schoolteacher and that he could present his documents if Mr Sergei needed proof. After hearing the beggar’s statements, Sergei said that he had lied enough. He further stated that the beggar had earlier informed him that he was a student and the reason behind being expelled from the institution. Mr Sergei became very angry because of the unacceptable lies. His face became red, and he turned away from the beggar with an expression of aversion.
 
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Sergei became angry after hearing Lushkoff's lies
 
After turning back, Mr Sergei shouted angrily, “This is dishonesty, my dear sir!”. He made the statement because the beggar was a fraudster who was getting money from people in the name of telling lies. Then he said that he would call the cop to arrest him.

After thinking that Mr Sergei might call the police, the beggar kept his hand on his heart and confessed that he was lying. He said that whatever he said was a lie, and it wasn’t true. He wasn’t a student or teacher. The real thing was that he was a member of a Russian choir group who was expelled after consuming alcohol. Furthermore, he stated that there was nothing else he could do because if he did not tell any lies, no one would help him. He also stated that he lied because people would not give him money if he spoke the truth.
 
Meanings of the difficult words:
 
S.No
Words
Meanings
1
ExpelOfficially make someone leave a school or other organization
2
Mumble Say something indistinctly and quietly, making it difficult for others to hear
3
Flush A reddening of the face, or skin typically caused by illness or strong emotion like anger
4
Disgust
A strong feeling of disapproval and dislike at a situation, person's behaviour
5
Swindle To get money dishonestly from someone by deceiving or cheating them
6
OvershoeA shoe worn over a normal shoe, typically made either of rubber to protect the normal shoe or of felt to protect a floor surface
Reference:
National Council of Educational Research and Training (2006). Moments. The Beggar– Anton Chekhov (pp. 62-68). Published at the Publication Division by the Secretary, National Council of Educational Research and Training, Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi.