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Theory:

     Sergei hurried into the dining-room. From its windows one could see the wood-shed and everything that went on in the yard. Standing at the window, Sergei saw the cook and the beggar come out into the yard by the back door and make their way across the dirty snow to the shed. Olga glared wrathfully at her companion, shoved him aside with her elbow, unlocked the shed, and angrily banged the door.
 
     Next he saw the pseudo-teacher seat himself on a log and become lost in thought with his red cheeks resting on his fists. The woman flung down an axe at his feet, spat angrily, and, judging from the expression of her lips, began to scold him. The beggar irresolutely pulled a billet of wood towards him, set it up between his feet, and tapped it feebly with the axe. The billet wavered and fell down. The beggar again pulled it to him, blew on his freezing hands, and tapped it with his axe cautiously, as if afraid of hitting his overshoe or of cutting off his finger; the stick of wood again fell to the ground.

     Sergei’s anger had vanished and he now began to feel a little sorry and ashamed of himself for having set a spoiled, drunken, perhaps sick man to work at menial labour in the cold.
Explanation:
 
When the beggar went with Olga, Mr Sergei rushed to the dining room. Mr Sergei went to the dining room to look outside the window. The woodshed and everything going on in the yard could be seen from his windows. Sergei stood at the window and watched the cook and the beggar enter the yard through the back entrance. They made their way to the shed through the muddy snow. Olga, the cook, glared fiercely at the beggar and pushed him inside with her elbow. She unlocked the shed and angrily shut the door.

Then Mr Sergei saw that beggar sitting on a big piece of wood. The narrator calls the beggar a "pseudo-teacher" because he initially introduced him as a teacher. The beggar was lost in thought and sat with his cheeks resting on his fists. The woman threw an axe at his feet and shouted violently at him. While looking at the expression of the maid's lip, it could be understood that Olga was scolding him.

After that, the beggar pulled the piece of wood towards him. He placed the wood between his feet and hit it weakly with the axe. The wood swayed and dropped to the ground. Then he pulled it up again and tried to warm up his hands by blowing into them and tapped the wood with the axe. Moreover, he was careful not to hit his shoes or cut his finger. The wood fell once again.

After seeing the beggar's situation, Sergei's anger towards him had disappeared. He felt sad and ashamed for putting the drunken poor man to do unskilled labour in the cold.

Meanings of the difficult words:
 
S.No
Words
Meanings
1
WrathfulFull of or characterised by intense anger
2
FistA person's hand when the fingers are bent in towards the palm and held there tightly, typically in order to strike a blow or grasp something
3
CompanionA person or animal with whom one spends a lot of time or with whom one travels
4
Feeble In a way that lacks strength or force
5
Ashamed Embarrassed or guilty because of one's actions, characteristics, or associations
6
PseudoSomeone or something which is not real or true
Reference:
National Council of Educational Research and Training (2006). Moments. The Beggar – Anton Chekhov (pp. 62-68). Published at the Publication Division by the Secretary, National Council of Educational Research and Training, Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi.