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The pattern of rhymes at the ending of each line in a poem is called a rhyme scheme. Letters (A,B,C...) are usually used to express which lines rhyme. Verses that are designated with the same letter are said to rhyme with each other. It is also known as an arrangement of rhymes in a stanza or a poem.
For easier understanding of the concept, let us take a famous nursery rhyme, written by Jane Taylor as an example.
Twinkle twinkle little star,
How I wonder what you are.
Up above the world so high
Like a diamond in the sky.
We see that the first two lines rhyme with each other (star-are); the second two lines rhyme with each other (high-sky). Let us name each line as \(A\), \(B\) depending on the words that rhyme with each other.
Twinkle twinkle little star,
How I wonder what you are. A
Up above the world so high,B
Like a diamond in the sky. B
It can thus be seen that this poem follows \(AABB\) pattern.
Rhyme scheme of the poem "Life":
Let me but live my life from year to year,\(A\)
With forward face and unreluctant soul;\(B\)
Not hurrying to, nor turning from the goal;\(B\)
Not mourning for the things that disappear\(A\)
In the dim past, nor holding back in fear\(A\)
From what the future veils; but with a whole\(B\)
And happy heart, that pays its toll\(B\)
To Youth and Age, and travels on with cheer.\(A\)
So let the way wind up the hill or down,\(C\)
O'er rough or smooth, the journey will be joy:\(D\)
Still seeking what I sought when but a boy,\(D\)
New friendship, high adventure, and a crown,\(C\)
My heart will keep the courage of the quest,\(E\)
And hope the road's last turn will be the best.\(E\)
The poem life follows the rhyme scheme  \(ABBAABBA\) \(CDDCEE\)  pattern.