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Conjunctions are words that link other words, phrases, or clauses together.

1. Radha likes cooking and eating, but she doesn’t like washing dishes afterwards.

2. Sita is exhausted, yet she insists on singing till evening.

There are three types of conjunctions:

ICoordinating conjunctions allow you to join words, phrases, and clauses of equal grammatical rank in a sentence. The most common coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so; you can remember them by using the mnemonic device FANBOYS.


1. I’d like idly or dosa for dinner.

2. We needed a place to study, so we took our things and went to the library.

3. Jessica didn’t have much money, but she went ahead.

Notice the use of a comma when a coordinating conjunction joins two independent clauses.

IICorrelative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that work together. Some examples are either/or, neither/nor, and not only/but also.


1Not only am I finished studying for Biology, but I also finished writing my English essay.

2. Sheela can have either tea or coffee.

IIISubordinating conjunctions join independent and dependent clauses of unequal importance. A subordinating conjunction can tell a cause-and-effect relationship, a contrast, between the clauses. Common subordinating conjunctions are because, since, as, although, though, while, and whereas. Sometimes an adverb, such as until, after, or before can function as conjunction.


1. Rima can stay out until the clock strikes eight.

Here, the adverb until functions as a coordinating conjunction to connect two ideas: Rima can stay out (the independent clause), and the clock strikes eight (the dependent clause). The independent clause could stand alone as a sentence; the dependent clause depends on the independent clause to make sense.


2. Before he leaves, make sure his room is clean.

If the dependent clause comes first, use a comma before the independent clause. 

Subordinating conjunctions may be sub-divided into four types:


  1. Conjunctions of time: Example: While, before
  2. Conjunctions of place: Example: Where, wherever
  3. Conjunctions of concession: Example: Though, although
  4. Conjunctions of comparison: Example: As, than

List of conjunctions:

1. Some Coordinating Conjunctions are:

for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so, as well as, else, otherwise, still, while, however, consequently, etc.


2. Some Correlative Conjunctions are:

both/and, either/or, neither/nor, not only/but, whether/or, rather than, whether, etc.


3. Some Subordinating Conjunctions are:

after, although, as, as if, as long as, as much as, as soon as, as though, because, before, by the time, even if, even though, if, in order that, in case, in the event that, lest, now that, once, only, only if, provided that, since, so, supposing, that, than, though, till, unless, until, when, whenever, where, whereas, wherever, whether or not, while, etc.

Conjunctions used in the lesson "The Attic":
  1. We decided to go and have tea at Nagen uncle’s tea shop.
  2. I have biscuits and savouries.
  3. He lost his wife and only son last year. Since then, he has been somewhat changed.
  4. I noticed a sudden change in Aditya’s expression, and I asked him the reason for it.             
  5. Though I was a little curious, I didn’t ask Aditya anything.
  6. He leads a cursed life but has not forgotten any past incidents.
  7. Only one other customer was sitting at a corner table, neither eating nor drinking tea.
  8. Even from the ruins, one could easily imagine how grand it must have been once upon a time.
  9. Mr Sanyal turned and faced us.
  10. Shall I laugh or cry?