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Theory:

     While I was thinking of all this, I heard my name called. It was my turn to recite. What would I not have given to be able to say that dreadful rule for the  participle all through, very loud and clear,  and without one mistake? But I got mixed  up on the first words and stood there,  holding on to my desk, my heart beating, and not daring to look up.
 
     I heard M. Hamel say to me, “I won’t  scold you, little Franz; you must feel bad enough. See how it is! Every day we have said to ourselves, ‘Bah! I’ve plenty of time. I’ll learn it tomorrow.’ And now you see  where we’ve come out. Ah, that’s the great  trouble with Alsace; she puts off learning  till tomorrow. Now those fellows out there will have the right to say to you, ‘How  is it; you pretend to be Frenchmen, and  yet you can neither speak nor write your own language?’ But you are not the worst, poor little Franz. We’ve all a great deal to reproach ourselves with.”
 
     “Your parents were not anxious  enough to have you learn. They preferred to put you to work on a farm or at the mills, so as to have a little more money. And I? I’ve been to blame also. Have I not  often sent you to water my flowers instead of learning your lessons? And when I wanted to go fishing, did I not just give  you a holiday?”
Explanation:
 
While the narrator was thinking about the last day of M. Hamel, he heard the teacher calling his name. It was now the narrator's turn to recite participles. He wanted to please his teacher by reciting the topic in one go and without making any mistakes. His misery is reflected in his willingness to give up everything he owns in exchange for reciting participle. On the contrary, he got his words confused and stood there, clutching the desk. His heart was beating since he was ashamed and didn't want to face his teacher.

M. Hamel stated that he would not punish the narrator because he knew he would feel very bad. Then he said that it was the human tendency to put off learning new things because they believe they have lots of time. They would think they would study the next day, but the opportunity to learn had passed by, and they did not know where they had come out.

According to M. Hamel, there is a great problem with the people of Alsace. It was their fault because no one took learning seriously. He tells the pupils that their adversaries (the Prussians) would laugh at them and say that the Frenchmen cannot speak or write their language. He claims that the narrator should not feel bad about himself because everyone is responsible for that.

M. Hamel says that the narrator's parents were not interested in getting him educated. They wanted him to work on a farm or mill to help them financially. He also admitted that he was too responsible for the blame because he should not allow him to water his plants instead of teaching. In addition, he said that he would sometimes declare a holiday and go fishing.
 
Meanings of the difficult words:
 
S.No
Words 
Meanings 
1
Dreadful  Causing or involving great suffering, fear, or unhappiness; extremely bad or serious
2
Trouble  To cause someone to be worried or nervous
3
Reproach  Express to (someone) one's disapproval of or disappointment in their actions
4
Anxious   Feeling or showing worry, nervousness, or unease about something with an uncertain outcome
5
Blame  Feel or declare that someone or something is responsible for a fault or wrong
6
Fishing The activity of catching fish, either for food or as a sport 
Reference:
State Council of Educational Research and Training (2018). Term-1 English Standard-10. The Last Lesson - Alphonse Daudet (pp. 162-178). Published by the Tamil Nadu Textbook and Educational Services Corporation.