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Theory:

Idioms are a group of words established by usage and are unique to the language. It usually has a different meaning than what it reads. It is a set expression or a phrase, and it does not hold the same meaning when read separately. Idioms do not have literal meanings. 
Example:
1. A snake in the grass
In general terms, it has its usual meaning. But when used as an idiom, the meaning refers to a disloyal person who pretends to be good.

2. To come off with flying colours
It means to emerge out with brilliant success, but not the literal meaning of coming out with a colourful display!
The purpose of an idiom is to express the meaning in a subtle, indirect manner, thereby making it unique and attractive. It sets the reader's mind to think beyond what is written to understand the hidden meaning, thus making the reading more interesting.
The following are some common idioms with meanings.
  1. Cool as a cucumber - calm, not nervous.
  2. Under the weather - not feeling well.
  3. To give up - admit defeat.
  4. Over the moon - extremely happy.
  5. Once in a blue moon - very rarely/almost never.
  6. Piece of cake - too simple to accomplish.
  7. Blessing in disguise - an unexpected good turn of events.
  8. Have hands full - very busy.
  9. Minting money - making quick and easy money.
  10. Took to heels - ran away.
  11. In the nick of time - just at the right moment.
  12. Make up my mind - decide.
  13. Turn over a new leaf - reform or change for the better.
  14. Take to the task - punish.
  15. In the long run - over a long period.
  16. Smell a rat - Have a reason to suspect something wrong.
  17. For good - permanently.
  18. Go out of your way - take extra trouble.
  19. Leave no stone unturned - make use of every available opportunity.
  20. Blow your own trumpet - praise yourself.
Some of the idioms from the lesson "The Last Lesson":
1. Hurried off - To leave or depart in haste.
2. Out of Breath - Have difficulty in breathing.