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Theory:

     The governor was pleased at the wit of the youth and praised greatly, but he demanded to know where he had obtained his wisdom. “Alas! Alas!” cried the farmer, “the truth must be told!” and with deep bows he related his story. The governor listened and then meditated in silence. Finally he lifted his head. “Shining needs more than strength of youth,” he said gravely. “Ah, that I should have forgotten the well-known saying, “with the crown of  snow, there cometh wisdom!” That very hour the cruel law was abolished, and custom drifted into as far a past that only legends remain.
Explanation:
 
The governor was highly impressed with the farmer's wit and intelligence when he saw the ash rope the farmer had created. But he demanded to know where he got the idea for such a thing from the farmer. When the farmer was asked a question, he replied to the king with a low bow about his mother's hidden existence. For some time, the governor stood quietly listening to the farmer. He didn't reply anything but seemed to be thinking about something seriously. After some thought, he proudly lifted his head and announced his decision. He made the decision not to punish the farmer but to abolish the terrible law he had established. He told his citizens that the Shining Country needed more than youth, which indicates that while young people devote their efforts to protecting the country, it would be in vain without the experience and wisdom of the elderly.
 
In addition, the governor realised that he had forgotten the old proverb, "With the crown of snow, there cometh wisdom!" which means that people develop wisdom as they age. As a result, the barbaric practice of killing the elderly came to an end, and it was no longer practised by anyone in the country of Shining but remained only as a past legend.
 
The narrative teaches the lesson that everyone in society, regardless of age, has a role to perform, and the farmer's aged mother's wisdom saved all of society's elders. The narrative also emphasises the necessity of elderly people being cared for and treated with respect as they get older.
Reference:
State Council of Educational Research and Training (2018). English Standard-10. The Aged Mother - Matsuo Basho (pp. 120-122). Published by the Tamil Nadu Textbook and Educational Services Corporation.