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Theory:

     The eyes of the old mother were not so dim but that they noted the reckless hastening from one path to another, and her loving heart grew anxious. Her son did not know the mountain’s many paths and his return might be one of danger, so she stretched forth her hand and snapping the twigs from brushes as they passed, she quietly dropped a handful every few steps of the way so that as they climbed, the narrow path behind them was dotted at frequent intervals with tiny piles of twigs. At last the summit was reached.

Explanation:

 

The farmer's mother's eyesight was not dim but keen, despite her advanced age. Despite her inability to see clearly, she was able to notice her son's rush to reach the mountain summit without realising or understanding the consequences. Since the farmer was young, he was solely focused on achieving his goal, unaware of the consequences of how he would return home in the evening or at night. 

 

The farmer's mother, on the other hand, thought about it since her age and experience had led her to think so. She was well aware that her son was unfamiliar with the mountain's numerous pathways and that his return journey could be dangerous. As a result, she thought about a number of ways to ensure her son's safe return home. She then had an idea; she snapped the twigs from the trees along the route and gently dropped a handful of them every few feet as they climbed the mountain. As she planned, the twigs she dropped on the exact pathways formed a dotted line with tiny stacks of twigs at regular intervals. So, she knew that would help her son not miss the way and return safely.

 

The farmer's mother's plan reveals three things:

 

a. People who are older are smarter, even if they are not physically more active.

b. The more the farmer's mother was older and experienced, the more problems she will be able to solve.

c. Older individuals don't react or work as rapidly as younger people do, but they do so more intelligently and with greater accuracy, and they make judgments based on the implications.

 

Meaning of difficult words:

 

S. No.
Words
Meaning
1.
BrushRefers to branches or twigs of a tree 
2.
RecklessIgnoring the dangerous results of something
3.
Anxious Worried or tensed about something
4.
SnapTo break something usually with a sound
5.
TwigA thin branch of a bush or a tree
Reference:
State Council of Educational Research and Training (2018). English Standard-10. The Aged Mother - Matsuo Basho (pp. 120-122). Published by the Tamil Nadu Textbook and Educational Services Corporation.