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Theory:

Prospero then appeared before them.
 
Fear nothing, my child,” said he; “I have overheard, and approve of all you have said. And, Ferdinand, if I have too severely used you, I will make you rich amends, by giving you my daughter. All your vexations were but trials of your love, and you have nobly stood the test. Then as my gift, take my daughter.”
 
When Prospero left them, he called his spirit Ariel, who quickly appeared before him, eager to relate what he had done with Prospero’s brother and the King of Naples. Ariel said he had left them  almost out of their senses with fear, at the strange things he had caused them to see and hear. When fatigued with wandering about, and famished for want of food, he had suddenly set before them a delicious banquet, and then, just as they were going to eat, he appeared visible before them in the shape of a harpy, a voracious monster with wings, and the feast vanished away. Then, to their utter amazement, this seeming harpy spoke to them, reminding them of their cruelty in driving Prospero from his dukedom, and leaving him and his infant daughter to perish in the sea; 
saying, that for this cause these terrors were suffered to afflict them.
Explanation:
  
While Ferdinand was speaking to Miranda, Prospero came in front of them and said, "fear nothing, my child". He had overheard everything and said that he would agree with their thoughts. He also said he had kept the test to know whether Ferdinand truly loved her daughter. He then went on to say that if he had been too harsh with him, he would make things right by giving his daughter to him. Furthermore, he stated that his difficulties were only tests of his love, which he had bravely succeeded. Later, he asked Ferdinand to accept her daughter as a gift.
 
Prospero then left the place. After leaving Miranda and Ferdinand, Prospero called his spirit Ariel. He quickly came in front of Prospero. Ariel was eager to inform what he did to Prospero's brother and the King of Naples. Ariel said that he had frightened them to death. When they became tired and hungry due to their wanderings, Ariel prepared a delicious feast. When they went to eat, he suddenly appeared in front of them. He appeared in a harpy, a voracious monster with wings. Later, the feast got vanished. He began speaking to them to make them even more terrified. He reminded them of the cruelty they had shown to Prospero and his daughter. He made them remember that they had drowned the king and his daughter in the sea. Then he said that these hardships were inflicted on them because of their cruelty towards the king and his daughter.

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Ariel appeared as a harpy monster with wings
 
Meanings of the difficult words:
 
S.No
Words
Meanings
1
VexationThe state of being annoyed, frustrated, or worried
2
FamishReduce someone to extreme hunger
3
BanquetAn elaborate and formal meal for many people
4
Monster A large, ugly, and frightening imaginary creature
5
VanishDisappear suddenly and completely
6
HarpyIn Greek mythology, a creature with the head of a woman and the body of a bird
7
Afflict To make someone or something suffer physically or mentally
8
Infant A very young child or baby
Reference:
State Council of Educational Research and Training (2018). Term-1 English Standard-10. The Tempest- William Shakespeare (pp. 21-27). Published by the Tamil Nadu Textbook and Educational Services Corporation.