Theory:

Conjunctions are words that link other words, phrases, or clauses together.
Example:
1. Radha likes cooking and eating, but she doesn’t like washing dishes afterward.
2. Sita is clearly exhausted, yet she insists on singing till evening.
Conjunctions allow you to form complex sentences.
There are three types of conjunctions:
I. Coordinating conjunctions allow you to join words, phrases, and clauses of equal grammatical rank in a sentence. The most common coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so; you can remember them by using the mnemonic device FANBOYS.
Example:
1. I’d like idly or a dosa for dinner.
2. We needed a place to study, so we took our things and went to the library.
3. Jessica didn’t have much money, but she went ahead.
Important!
Notice the use of the comma when a coordinating conjunction is joining two independent clauses.
II. Correlative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that work together. Some examples are either/or, neither/nor, and not only/but also.
Example:
1. Not only am I finished studying for Biology, but also finished writing my English essay.
2. Sheela can have either tea or coffee.
III. Subordinating conjunctions join independent and dependent clauses of unequal importance. A subordinating conjunction can tell a cause-and-effect relationship, a contrast, between the clauses. Common subordinating conjunctions are because, since, as, although, though, while, and whereas. Sometimes an adverb, such as until, after, or before can function as a conjunction.
Example:
1. Rima can stay out until the clock strikes eight.
Here, the adverb until functions as a coordinating conjunction to connect two ideas: Rima can stay out (the independent clause) and the clock strikes eight (the dependent clause). The independent clause could stand alone as a sentence; the dependent clause depends on the independent clause to make sense.
 
2. Before he leaves, make sure his room is clean.
If the dependent clause comes first, use a comma before the independent clause. 
Subordinating conjunctions may be sub-divided into four types:
  1. Conjunctions of time: Example: While, before
  2. Conjunctions of place: Example: Where, wherever
  3. Conjunctions of concession: Example: Though, although
  4. Conjunctions of comparison: Example: As, than
List of conjunctions:
  
1. Some Coordinating Conjunctions are:
for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so, as well as, else, otherwise, still, while, however, consequently, etc.
 
2. Some Correlative Conjunctions are:
both/and, either/or, neither/nor, not only/but, whether/or, rather than, whether or etc.
 
3. Some Subordinating Conjunctions are:
after, although, as, as if, as long as, as much as, as soon as, as though, because, before, by the time, even if, even though, if, in order that, in case, in the event that, lest , now that, once, only, only if, provided that, since, so, supposing, that, than, though, till, unless, until, when, whenever, where, whereas, wherever, whether or not, while etc.
Conjunctions used in the lesson "Who Owns the Water?":
And
  1. The land was parched and dry and there wasn’t a bush or tree in sight.
  2. She broadened the hole and there, underneath the hot sun, she laid her eggs.
  3. The eggs hatched and the good mother protected and fed her babies until they were big enough to fly away.
  4. They whined and snarled and dug at the smell as if digging the elusive boar himself out of the ground.
  5. It poured and poured and only those of us who have seen the monsoons will know what that means.
 
But
  1. This isn’t a tale of the little bird but a much more interesting one of the hole she used as a temporary nest.
  2. I was not there to see, but I am told that many afternoons did the buffaloes gather.
  3. No, little one, but there is something to learn from everything we see and hear.
 
So
  1. There is more to go, so you will have to wait awhile.
  2. No, little one, but there is something to learn from everything we see and hear; so hush, while I come to end of the tale.
  3. I do not need to tell you how soon news travels in a little village and so it was quite a crowd that gathered by the side of the pond.
 
Until
  1. For some time the hole remained dusty and untenanted, until one day a passing wild boar settled his rump into the depression.