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Theory:

If one should come too close to earth
The atmosphere will shake,
With shockwave reaching to the ground
Causing the land to quake.
Explanation:
  
In the fourth stanza, the speaker looks at the dangerous side of a comet. As mentioned before, a comet that comes too close to earth can put the earth in danger, as certain comets are powerful enough to destroy our planet.
 
Depending on the comet’s size, a collision between the earth and comet can cause huge destruction on local to global scales.
 
The speaker says that a comet could create earthquakes. When a comet gets closer to the earth's surface, the atmosphere will shake, and shockwaves will reach the ground, causing the earth to shake. 
 
earthquake-g4797585a2_1920.jpg
Shockwaves cause the earthquakes
Meanings of difficult words:
 
S.No
Words
Meanings
1
ShockwaveA sharp change of pressure in a narrow region travelling through a medium, especially air, caused by explosion or by a body moving faster than sound
2
QuakeShake or tremble, especially of the earth; an earthquake
Reference:
State Council of Educational Research and Training (2019). Term-3 English Standard-9. The Comet- Norman Littleford (pp. 95). Published by the Tamil Nadu Textbook and Educational Services Corporation.