Theory:

A phrase is a group of words that are together as a single unit, as part of a clause or a sentence.
A phrase does not contain a subject and verb and, so it cannot make a complete sentence. A phrase is not like a clause. A clause does contain a subject and a verb, and it can make a complete sentence.
Example:
1. As soon as you got in, he went out.
("As soon as" is a conjunctional phrase.)

2. Popcorn popping, the dog was ready for the film.
Popcorn popping” modifies the clause “the dog was ready for the film.”

3. The entire rugby team, their uniforms muddy and stained, shouted in joy.
Noun Phrase: A noun phrase consists of a noun and all its modifiers.
Example:
1. I am tired.
(Often a noun phrase is just a noun or a pronoun)

2. The  Nizam's house was brightly decorated for the holidays.
("The Nizam's house" noun phrase as a subject.)
Verb phrase: A verb phrase is the part of a sentence that contains both the verb as a direct or indirect object. They serve as a link between the subject of the verb and information about that subject. A verb phrase can be the predicate of a sentence or a clause. In this case, there will usually be a helping verb in addition to the verb.
Example:
1. Shalini was walking quickly to the office.
2. Dhanush should wait before going swimming.
3. To make apple pie, you first need an apple.
4. Open the door to let the fresh air in.
Prepositional Phrase: A prepositional phrase is a group of words that consists of a preposition, its object which will be a noun or a pronoun, and any words that modify the object. Put the fresh flowers on a high shelf.
Example:
1. Our basketball team won against all the odds.
2. The lion crept over the grass.
3. My shopping list needs to be put into my handbag.