Theory:

Present tense is used to talk about events happening in the present. There are four forms of the present tense.
  1. Simple present tense
  2. Present continuous tense
  3. Present perfect tense
  4. Present perfect continuous tense
Let us discuss each form now:
I. Simple present tense:
1. Formation: verb + s/es.
2. Usage:
 
No.
Condition
Example
Formation: Verb + s/es
1
Events that are happening in the present She goes to school.Go + es
2
HabitsSheela wakes up at 5 AM everyday.Wake + s
3
Generally accepted truths/factsThe sun sets in the west.Rise + s
4
Future planned events/timetablesYour math tuition starts next week.Start +s
II. Present Continuous tense:
1. Formation: am/is/are + verb+ing
2. Usage:
 
No.
Condition
Example
Formation: am/is/are + verb + ing
1
Events happening nowThe classes are going on now.Are + go + ing
2
Scheduled/fixed plansI'm visiting Paris next week.Am + visit +ing
3
Temporary actionsShe is having her dental appointment this week.Is+ have + ing
4
TrendsSome people are smoking in public places even today.Are + smoke + ing
5
Actions over a period of time in progress now
Hari is studying hard to crack his NEET exams.Is + study + ing
III. Present Perfect tense:
1. Formation: has/have + past participle of verb
2. Usage:
 
No.
Condition
Example
Formation: has/have + past participle
1
Actions completed in the immediate pastWe have joined a course on political science.have + joined
2
Actions from the past, happening till nowMaria has worked here since 2011.has + worked
3
Changes over a period of timeMy mother has seen a tremendous improvement in my health.has + seen
4
Repeatedly happening events, until nowI have been to Paris many times since I moved to Germany.have + been
5
Events in the past - with no specific time
He has studied that lesson a million times.has + studied
IV. Present Perfect Continuous tense:
1. Formation: has/have been + verb+ing
2. Usage:
 
No.
Condition
Example
Formation: has/have been + verb + ing
1
Actions happening recently or latelyAisha has been working hard for her exams.Has been + work + ing
2
Duration from the past till nowI have been coaching this team for five years.Have been + coach + ing
3
Temporary actionsMani has been resting for a while now.Has been + rest + ing
4
Actions going on for a period of timeIt has been raining all night.Has been + rain + ing
Examples of present tense used in the lesson:
  1. The true elixir of life lies near our hands. - Simple present
  2. There is nothing which adds so much to the beauty of the countryside as water. - Simple present
  3. It reflects the mood of the hour. - Simple present
  4. The rainfed tanks are a cheering sight when they are full. - Present continuous
  5. It is the water of the river Nile flowing down to the Mediterranean from its sources. - Present continuous
  6. The conditions under which soil erosion occurs are deserving of the closest study. - Present Continuous
  7. The menace of soil erosion to the continuance of successful agriculture is an alarming one. - Present Continuous
  8. The flow of water has played a great part and a beneficent one in the geological processes. - Present Perfect
  9. It has played a role of vast significance in shaping the course of the earth’s history. - Present Perfect
  10. Man has through the ages sought in vain for an imaginary elixir of life. - Present Perfect
Important!
To learn more about Present Prefect Tense, click here.
To learn more about Present Perfect Continuous Tense, click here.