In class IX, Natural resources, we have learned about natural resources and how the various components are cycled repeatedly in nature. In the previous chapter, Our Environment, we learnt about the components of an ecosystem and how human activities affect the environment and natural resources.
In this chapter, let us look at how these resources are used and how to manage them effectively. We shall look into our natural resources, such as forests, wildlife, water, coal, and petroleum, to also need to identify what issues are at stake in determining how these resources should be managed for sustainable development. 
Ever since the evolution of humans, we have been surrounded by nature and are dependent on food, water, air, energy, and raw materials. Humans require land to live on, water to drink, solar energy for heat and energy, forest and wildlife for food etc., for our existence. 
What are natural resources?
Resources provided or obtained by nature and developed without humans' intervention are called natural resources.
They are found naturally within an environment and is obtained from nature. Some examples of natural resources include air, water, soil, vegetation, wild and domestic animals, minerals and natural fuels like coal, petrol, and petroleum
Percentage of natural resources
The earth's diverse natural resources supply the necessities for the survival of all forms of life, including humans. Let us now look at the types and classification of natural resources.
The types and classification of natural resources:
Classification of natural resources
  • Renewable or Inexhaustible resources: Resources present in unlimited or infinite quantities in nature and can be used repeatedly are known as renewable resources. Examples of renewable resources include solar energy, hydroelectric power, wind energy etc.
  • Non-Renewable or Exhaustible resources: Resources that are limited in quantity and can be exhausted by human activity in the future are known as non-renewable resources. Examples of non-renewable resources include fossil fuels like coal, petroleum, natural gas etc.
Renewable and non-renewable resources