Theory:

It is mandatory to practice sanitation. But at the same time, it is also important that these practices are cost-effective.

Nowadays, on-site sewage is used as an alternative for sewage disposal. These include septic tanks, compost pit toilets and chemical toilets. It is mainly practised in the places that lack a central wastewater collection system.
 
Septic Tanks:
It is a tank that is often installed under the ground in houses, hospitals and so on. In this tank, the decomposition of the sewage from the places occurs by the action of anaerobic bacteria.
 
Chemical toilets:
This is a toilet which has a separate compartment for treating the human waste with chemicals so that their odour is decreased.
 
Composting toilets:
It is a toilet in which the human wastes are treated biologically. In these toilets, the aerobic bacteria are present in a storage tank that act upon the waste and turn it into compost.
 
Certain places provide hygienic on-site human waste disposal technology which does not require scavenging. The excreta from these toilet seats are allowed to flow through the covered drains into a biogas plant. The biogas produced in these plants is used as an energy source.
 
Conclusion:
Every individual plays a vital role in maintaining a clean and healthy environment. We must realise our responsibility in maintaining the water sources in a healthy state. The practice of adopting acceptable sanitation practices should be our way of life. The initiative of every individual will make a significant difference.
 
"No one need to wait for anyone else to adopt a humane and enlightened course of action."
                                                                                                — Mahatma Gandhi.