All living organisms require food.
Energy from the food is utilised by organisms for carrying out their various body functions, such as digestion, respiration and excretion.We get our food from plants and/or animals.
To supply food for a large population in country like India — regular production, proper management and distribution is very much necessary.
Let us see, how the crops are produced; and seasons in which they are produced; and how crops are being produced, the distribution is managed and other interesting things about crop production and management in this lesson. Let us start from crops.
Crop : When plants of the same kind are cultivated at one place on a large scale, it is called a crop. So a crop field, for instance, rice fields cultivate only rice.
Crop types and seasons: There are different types of crops such as cereals, vegetables and fruits grown in different seasons in a year. India being a vast country have different seasons in different parts of the country in a year. However, for crop management, it is necessary to classify into a meaningful group. Thus, in India, we have two major crop production seasons called Kharif and Rabi.
(a) Kharif crops: crops produced during rainy season are called kharif crops. Generally this season is between June to September. The major crops produced are paddy, maize, groundnut and cotton.
(b) Rabi crops: crops produced during winter season are called rabi crops. This season is generally between October to March (in some part of the country till may or June). The major crops produced in this season are wheat, grams, pea, pulses, mustard, etc.
The practice of agriculture:
The following are the major steps to be followed when practicing agriculture to produce crops:
(i) Preparation of soil
(iii) Adding manure and fertilisers
(v) Protecting from weeds
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