All living organisms require food.
The energy obtained from food is helpful to carry out various body functions of the organisms, such as digestion, respiration and excretion. We get our food from plants as well as animals. .
To supply food for a large population in a country like India — regular production, proper management and distribution is very much necessary.
In this lesson, let us see how the crops are produced, distributed and managed in different seasons.
Crop : When plants of the same kind are cultivated at one place on a large scale, it is called a crop. So a crop field, for instance, rice fields cultivate only rice.
Crop types and seasons: There are different types of crops such as cereals, vegetables and fruits grown in different seasons in a year. India being a vast country, have different seasons in different parts of the country. However, for crop management, it is necessary to classify into a meaningful group. Thus, in India, we have two major crop production seasons called Kharif and Rabi.
(a) Kharif crops: crops produced during rainy season are called Kharif crops. Generally, this season is between June to September. The major crops produced in this season are paddy, maize, groundnut and cotton.
(b) Rabi crops: crops produced during winter season are called rabi crops. This season is generally between October to March (in some part of the country till May or June). The major crops produced in this season are wheat, grams, pea, pulses, mustard, etc.
The practice of agriculture:
The following are the major steps to be followed when practising agriculture to produce crops:
(i) Preparation of soil
(iii) Adding manure and fertilisers
(v) Protecting from weeds
Image credit : Dengo - Pixabay