Mars, also known as Mangal, is the fourth planet and the second-smallest planet in the solar system. It is the first planet lying outside the orbit of the Earth from the Sun. The planet completes its rotation in \(24\ hours\ 37\ minutes\), and the period of revolution is \(687\ days\).
Mars is generally called the 'Red planet' as it appears slightly reddish in colour. This colour is due to the iron oxide present on its surface.
Satellites of Mars:
Mars has two natural satellites, namely Phobos and Deimos, out of which Deimos is smaller.
Moons of Mars
Astronomers have sent many unmanned spacecrafts to Mars to study its surface, climate, and geology.
Mangalyaan is India’s first Mars orbiter mission. It is the first interplanetary mission. It was launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) on \(November\ 5,\ 2013\). This orbiter was successfully placed into an orbit of Mars on \(September\ 24,\ 2014\). India was the first Asian country and the first nation to achieve this in its first attempt successfully. This mission was to study the constituents present in the surface and atmosphere of Mars.
Asteroids are small rocky celestial objects that orbit in space. These asteroids form a belt-like structure between Mars and Jupiter. This asteroid belt looks like a dividing line between the inner rocky planets and the outer gaseous giants.
Asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter