The plants whose reproductive organs are very inconspicuous, and they are called ‘cryptogams’, or ‘those with hidden reproductive organs’. They include,
  • Thallophyte
  • Bryophyta
  • Pteridophyta
These are group of plants that do not have a well-differentiated body design. These plants are commonly known as algae and are mostly aquatic. They include photosynthetic algae and fungi.
Spirogyra, Ulothrix, Volvox, Cladophora, Ulva and Chara
Clockwise from top left: Chara, Ulva, Chladophora, Spirogyra
These are known as the amphibians of the plant kingdom as they are found in both water and on land. They are first terrestrial plants. In these plants their body is differentiated to form stem and leaf-like structures. But they lack specialised tissues for the conduction of water and other substances.
Mossses such as Funaria, Riccia, Marchantia and liverworts
Clockwise from top: Funaria, Riccia, Marchantia, Liverworts
This is a phylum that includes plants whose body is differentiated into roots, stem and leaves. They also have specialised tissue for the conduction of water and other substances from one part of the plant body to another. Hence, they are known as vascular cryptogams. They are found in terrestrial or dry areas.
Clockwise from top: Marsilea, Ferns, Horsetails, Adiantum