Rearing domestic fowl for egg production and meat is known as poultry farming.
Improved poultry breeds are developed and farmed to produce layers (raising of egg-laying poultry birds) for eggs and broilers (raised specially for meat production) for meat.
To improve the poultry breeds, crossbreeding between Indian or indigenous (Aseel) and the foreign or exotic (Leghorn) breeds is performed.
Production of egg and broiler:
They are fed with a supplementary feed rich with vitamins (vitamin A and vitamin K), and proteins for high growth rate and fat. The chickens are cared to avoid mortality and to maintain the feathering and meat quality. Broilers are produced and sent to the market for meat.
Broilers and egg layers have different housing, nutritional, and environmental requirements. For better production of poultry, good management practices are required. Practices followed for the maintenance of shelter for poultry birds:
1. Proper cleaning and sanitation of shelter.
2. Maintenance of temperature and hygiene in the shelter.
3. Proper ventilation.
4. Prevention and control of disease and pests in broilers.
An egg layer poultry farming means raising of the egg-laying poultry birds for commercial egg production.
They do not require a nutrient-rich diet but only require a controlled diet. The layers require more space and need proper lighting (require \(6\) to \(8\ hours\) of sleep) when compared to the broilers.
Poultry diseases and prevention:Poultry fowl suffers from many diseases that are caused due to virus, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. They also suffer from diseases due to nutritional deficiency.
Poultry diseases can be prevented by:
1. Proper nutritional diet to the poultry birds as per its requirement.
2. Proper cleaning and sanitation of the shelter.
3. Vaccination of poultry birds to prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases. Loss of poultry during an outbreak of disease can be reduced through proper vaccination.
Vaccination of poultry
4. Spraying disinfectants at regular intervals in the shelter of poultry fowls.