Scientific management of animal livestock is termed as animal husbandry.
Livestock are raised in a controlled environment which provides the right care to the livestock so that they are disease-free. Animal-based farming includes sheep, goat, cattle, fish, poultry, turkey etc.
It is a branch of science that deals with feeding, breeding, farming, utilisation and care of farm animals, including disease control.
Need of animal husbandry:
1. The increase in population and growth in living standards cause an increase in demand of animals products like milk, meat, eggs, and leather.
2. Increased awareness for proper management and systematic approach to the rearing of animals.
Farming of cattle:
Cattle husbandry are used for:
- Milk and
- Draught labour in the farm fields to perform agricultural works like tilling, irrigation, and carting.
Milk producing females or dairy animals are called milch animals. Draught animals are used to perform labour works in farms.
In India, there are \(two\) different species present that includes:
- Bos indicus (cows)
- Bos bubalis (buffaloes)
Cattle breeds present in India:
- Indigenous or the local breed - have higher disease resistance.
- Foreign or exotic breed - have longer lactation period.
Milk production can be increased by:
- Increasing the lactation period (period of milk production after the birth of calf) in cattle.
- Crossbreeding of foreign and the local breeds to get the desired quality have increased the lactation period and disease resistance.
- To keep the cattle healthy, disease-free, and to obtain clean milk, the shelter of the cattle must be maintained hygienically.