Theory:

Properties of Alpha, Beta and Gamma rays:
Properties
Alpha rays
Beta rays
Gamma rays
What are they?
Helium nucleus (\(_{2}He^{4}\)) with two
protons and two neutrons
Electrons (\(_{-1}e^{0}\))
Electromagnetic waves consisting of photons
Charge
Positively charged particles
with charge of \(+2e\)
Negatively charged
particles with
charge of \(–e\)
Chargeless neutral particles
Ionising
power
\(100\) times greater than \(β\) rays and\(10,000\) times greater than \(γ\) rays
Comparatively low ionisation power
Very less ionisation power
Penetrating
power
Low penetrating power
Penetrating power is greater than that of \(α\)
rays
Very high penetrating power greater than
that of \(β\) rays
Effect of electric and
magnetic field
Deflected by both the fields
Deflected by both the fields but opposite
to that of alpha rays
Not deflected
Speed
Ranges from \(1/10\) to \(1/20\)
times the speed of light
Has \(9/10\) times the speed of light
Travel with the speed of light
Rest mass\(4\) times the mass of the protonEqual to the mass of an electronNo mass
Stopping substance
Thin paper and human skin
 
 
About \(1\ mm\) of lead or \(3\ mm\) of aluminiumAbout \(30\ cm\) of iron or few metres of concrete
Biological damage
Causes damage and harmful to humans
Causes damage and harmful to humansPasses through a human body and destroy the cells (kill cancer cells)
Mind map of Nuclear Physics:
nuclear mind map.png