### Theory:

Properties of Alpha, Beta and Gamma rays:
 Properties Alpha rays Beta rays Gamma rays What are they? Helium nucleus ($$_{2}He^{4}$$) with two protons and two neutrons Electrons ($$_{-1}e^{0}$$) Electromagnetic waves consisting of photons Charge Positively charged particleswith charge of $$+2e$$ Negatively charged particles with charge of $$–e$$ Chargeless neutral particles Ionisingpower $$100$$ times greater than $$β$$ rays and$$10,000$$ times greater than $$γ$$ rays Comparatively low ionisation power Very less ionisation power Penetratingpower Low penetrating power Penetrating power is greater than that of $$α$$ rays Very high penetrating power greater than that of $$β$$ rays Effect of electric andmagnetic field Deflected by both the fields Deflected by both the fields but opposite to that of alpha rays Not deflected Speed Ranges from $$1/10$$ to $$1/20$$ times the speed of light Has $$9/10$$ times the speed of light Travel with the speed of light Rest mass $$4$$ times the mass of the proton Equal to the mass of an electron No mass Stopping substance Thin paper and human skin About $$1\ mm$$ of lead or $$3\ mm$$ of aluminium About $$30\ cm$$ of iron or few metres of concrete Biological damage Causes damage and harmful to humans Causes damage and harmful to humans Passes through a human body and destroy the cells (kill cancer cells)
Mind map of Nuclear Physics: