### Theory:

Minerals:
• A mineral can be a single compound or a complex mixture of different metal combinations found in the earth.
Different types of minerals

Ore:
• An ore is a mineral that can be readily and economically extracted on a large scale.
Ore extracted from quarry

All ores are minerals; But all minerals are not ores. Why?
• We can commercially extract metals from all ores, which are minerals. However, not all minerals are ores, as some contain unwanted components.
For example, Clay ($$Al_2O_3$$.$$2SiO_2.2H_2O$$) and Bauxite ($$Al_2O_3.2H_2O$$) are aluminium minerals, but we can profitably extract aluminium only from bauxite. Hence, bauxite is an ore of aluminium, and clay is its mineral.

Mining:
• Mining is the process of extracting ores from the earth's crust.
Ores in mining process

Gangue or Matrix:
• Gangue or matrix refers to the rocky impurity associated with an ore.
Rocky impurity

Flux:
• The substance is added to the ore to decrease the fusion temperature and remove the impurities.