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Theory:

Motherboard:

The motherboard is the primary component of a computer. It is a board with IC's (Integrated Circuits) that connects the internal parts of the computer such as CPU, RAM, Disk drives (CD, DVD, hard disk, or any others) and any devices connected through the ports or the expansion slots.
 
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Parts of the computer - Motherboard

Storage devices:
Data storage is an essential and vital function of computers. A storage device is  used to store and extract data files and objects. It can hold and store data and information both temporarily and permanently and can be internal or external to a computer. It is mainly classified into two types based on the arrangement,
  • Fixed Storage devices
  • Removable Storage devices
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Parts of the computer - Storage devices
 
Fixed storage devices:
Fixed storage is an internal media used by a computer to store data, usually referred to as Fixed Disks or Hard Drives. We can remove fixed storage devices from the system for repair, maintenance or up-gradation purposes.
    Example:
  • Hard disk drives
  • SSD (solid-state disk) drives
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Parts of the computer - Fixed storage devices
 
Removable storage devices:
The removable storage device is a type of storage device that we can remove from a computer while the system is running. It provides an easy way for a user to move data from one computer to another.
    Example:
  • Floppy disks
  • CDs, DVDs and Blu-ray disks
  • Memory cards
  • USB drives
 
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Parts of the computer - Removable storage devices
 
CPU:
A Central Processing Unit (CPU) is also called as central processor, which is the electronic circuit within a computer used to execute the instructions that make up a computer program. The CPU is used to perform basic operations such as  arithmetic, logic, controlling, and I/O (Input / Output) operations given by the instructions in the program.
 
CPU itself has the following three components.
  • Memory or Storage Unit
  • Control Unit
  • ALU(Arithmetic Logic Unit)
 
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Parts of the computer - CPU

Graphics card:
A graphics card is a device which is installed within the computers to display graphical data with high clarity, colour, definition and overall appearance. Graphics card provides high-quality visual display by processing and executing graphical data using advanced graphic techniques, features and functions.
 
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Parts of the computer - Graphics card