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Compared to the other animals, the nervous system of humans is a well developed one. It is composed of neurons or nerve cells. The nerve system is an important component of the human body as it is involved with the conduction and coordination along with endocrine system.
The organs of the system
Human Nervous System
The brain is a prominent organ of the nervous system as it is the organ that controls and regulates all of the activities throughout the body. It is a complex organ that is made up of neurons or nerve cells and is placed inside the cranium or skull.
It is enclosed by three membrane layers known as meninges. The brain can be divided into three regions: the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain. The brain is an organ that conducts the signals to and from the brain. Hence it is also known as the controlling centre of the body.
Structure of human brain
Spinal cord
It is a bundle of nerves that extends from the medulla oblongata (brain stem) of the hindbrain. The vertebral column protects the spinal cord. The spinal cord is the organ that connects the brain to the different parts of the body through the nerves.
Structure of spinal cord
Peripheral nerves
These are a network of nerves and ganglions that carry signals to and from the central nervous system. They comprise the intercostal nerves, radial nerves and the femoral nerve.
The functions of the nervous system
Sensory and motor nerves
Sensory or afferent input
It involves the conduction of signals from the sensory receptors.
It is the interpretation of the sensory signals and the formulation of responses.
Motor or efferent output
It is the conduction of signals from the brain and spinal cord to the effectors organs such as the muscle and gland cells.