The plant and animal wastes (organic wastes) can be degraded and converted into manure by the action of microorganisms. It is done by burying the wastes into the compost pits or bins. The process of recycling of organic wastes by burying into the compost pits is called composting.
Biodegradable wastes are decomposed through the action of microorganisms like bacteria and fungi.
The manure obtained through composting acts as a natural fertiliser that are needed by the plants, and also increase the soil fertility.
Dry leaves found on the roadside are disposed off by burning them. Burning of dry leaves and other agricultural wastes generates smoke and harmful gas that can damage our health. The smoke can cause pollution, and it also generates a lot of heat.
VermicompostingEarthworm called red worms (or red wrigglers) acts on the organic wastes including the dry leaves, and degrades them. The red worms break the organic matter into the nutrient-rich manure called vermicompost which increases the fertility of the soil.
Earthworms eat the decaying organic wastes. In 3 - 4 weeks, manure is ready, and appears as loose soil-like material. Oily material and animal wastes should not be used as it promotes the growth of disease-causing microorganisms.
The burning of solid wastes in an incinerator is known as incineration.
Wastes like discarded medicines, toxic drugs, blood, pus are disposed off through incineration. In the process, high temperature and enormous heat kills the germs that cause various contagious disease. Electricity can also be produced with the help of the heat generated.
Large and low-lying areas that are used for waste disposal are called landfills.
In this method, wastes are dumped into pits (naturally occurring or man-made) and covered with soil. Garbage buried in landfills remain in a landfill for a long time and decompose slowly to convert into manure.
Once the landfill is full, it is converted to a park, gardens, or a playground (no building can be constructed for nearly \(20\ years\) on top of it).