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Theory:

A computer is an electronic device that processes data and information according to our needs. We can save the data and translate it into information. We can utilise the computer in many ways. 
A computer is an electronic device working under the control of instructions stored in its internal memory. It receives the data (input), processes it according to specified rules, produces information (output), and stores it for future use.
A computer is a device that is available in different shapes that comprises both hardware and software. The functions of hardware and software combine to make the computer functional.
 
Hardware:
Computer hardware is the set of physical elements that form a computer system.
Computer hardware refers to the physical parts or components of a computer that we can touch.
 
Examples:
  • Monitor
  • Mouse
  • Keyboard
  • Hard Disk Drive (HDD)
  • Graphic cards
  • Sound cards, and
  • Motherboard, etc.,
Software:
Software is the programmed code application that is used to process and execute the input information.
The software converts the input information into coding or programming language and executes them to do the particular task allocated by the user. The software is typically a collection of documentation, instructions, and procedures capable of performing different tasks on a computer system. Software is not a physical part, so we cannot touch or feel them, but we can see the functions of software through output.
 
Software is primarily classified into two types based on the process:
  • System software (Operating system)
  • Application software
System software:
System software is also known as the operating system.  An Operating System (OS) is an interface between a computer user and computer hardware, making the hardware process the input data provided by the user and display the outcome on the output devices.
 
Examples:
  • Windows
  • Linux
  • Unix
Application software:
Application software is a program or a group of programs designed for users to benefit from completing the various tasks on the computer. The application software can be pre-installed or installed whenever needed by the user on the computer.
 
Examples:
  • MS Office
  • Tux Paint
  • Skype

The operating system and application software are available in two forms. They are,

  1. Free and Open-source
  2. Paid and Proprietary software
Free and Open-source software:
Free and Open-source software are software that are freely licensed to use, copy, study, and change in any way. The source code is openly shared to encourage users to improve the software's design voluntarily.
    Example:
  • Linux
  • Tux Paint
Paid and Proprietary software:
Paid and Proprietary software is also known as “Closed Source” and is different to open source. Instead of being free for anyone to use, Paid and proprietary software are owned by an individual or company. The source code is usually kept secret. Companies would not provide the license of the software unless it is purchased. People with access to the code can modify and change it. Similarly, end-users are legally prohibited from stealing the software program or using the pirated version of the Paid and Proprietary software.  
Example:
  • Windows
  • MS Office
In this chapter, we are going to learn the Tux Paint software.