Theory:

The elements in the periodic table are classified as metals and non-metals based on their physical and chemical properties. There are around \(95\) metals and \(17\) non-metals in the periodic table.
Metals are electropositive elements, where they donate electrons to form a stable configuration.
Physical properties of metals:
A physical property can be observed and measured without altering the sample's chemical identity. In other words, a physical property can cause a physical change but not a chemical change.
 
Let's see some of the physical properties of metals.
  • State
  • Lustre
  • Malleability
  • Ductility
  • Hardness
  • Valency
  • Conduction
  • Density
  • Sonorous
  • Melting and Boiling Points
State:
  
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Most of the metals are solid at room temperature, except mercury which is liquid at room temperature.
 
Lustre:
  
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Metals are lustrous in nature (shining or the reflecting nature of metals), such as gold and silver.
 
Malleability:
  
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Metals are malleable in nature (as they can be drawn into thin sheets).
 
Ductility:
 
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Metals are ductile in nature (as they can be drawn into wires).
 
Hardness:
 
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All metals are hard except sodium and potassium.
 
Valency:
  
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Metals have \(1\) to \(3\) electrons in the outermost shell.
 
Conduction:
 
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Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity (they have free electrons in their outermost shell).
 
Density:
  
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Metals have a high density (mass of unit volume of a material substance).
 
Sonorous:
 
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Metals are sonorous in nature (they produce a ringing sound when struck hard).
 
Melting and Boiling Points:
 
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Metals have high melting and boiling points because of their strong metallic bonds, except for sodium and potassium, which has a low melting and boiling points. 
The materials which generally possess the above properties are called Metals.
Example:
Iron, copper, aluminium, calcium, magnesium, gold, silver etc.