The elements in the periodic table are classified as metals and non-metals based on their physical and chemical properties. There are around \(95\) metals and \(17\) non-metals in the periodic table.
Metals are electropositive elements, where they donate electrons to form a stable configuration.
Physical properties of metals:
A physical property can be observed and measured without altering the sample's chemical identity. In other words, a physical property can cause a physical change but not a chemical change.
Let's see some of the physical properties of metals.
- Melting and Boiling Points
Most of the metals are solid at room temperature, except mercury which is liquid at room temperature.
Metals are lustrous in nature (shining or the reflecting nature of metals), such as gold and silver.
Metals are malleable in nature (as they can be drawn into thin sheets).
Metals are ductile in nature (as they can be drawn into wires).
All metals are hard except sodium and potassium.
Metals have \(1\) to \(3\) electrons in the outermost shell.
Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity (they have free electrons in their outermost shell).
Metals have a high density (mass of unit volume of a material substance).
Metals are sonorous in nature (they produce a ringing sound when struck hard).
Melting and Boiling Points:
Metals have high melting and boiling points because of their strong metallic bonds, except for sodium and potassium, which has a low melting and boiling points.
The materials which generally possess the above properties are called Metals.
Iron, copper, aluminium, calcium, magnesium, gold, silver etc.