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Theory:

Types of ions:
Ions are classified into two types. They are:
  • Cations
  • Anions
Cations:
If an atom loses one or more electrons during a chemical reaction, it gains a positive charge. These are referred to as cations (or positive radicals).
Anions:
If an atom gains one or more electrons during a chemical reaction, it gains a negative charge. These are referred to as anions(or negative radicals).
NaCl.JPG
Types of ion: Anion and Cation
  
1. Sodium atom loses one electron to achieve stable electronic configuration, and it becomes a cation.
 
2. The sodium ion is described as \(Na^+\).
  
3. Chlorine atom gains one electron to achieve stable electronic configuration, and it becomes anions.
 
4. The chlorine ion is described as \(Cl^-\).
  
Ion Classification