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Theory:

Water pollutants are generally classified into three types:
  1. Domestic pollutants
  2. Agricultural pollutants
  3. Industrial pollutants
Let see about the sources and effects of various water pollutants.
Domestic pollutants
Pollutants: Sodium sulphates and phosphates
Sources: Detergents
 
They affect developmental, reproductive and neurotoxicity in humans, as well as endocrine disruption. Phosphates speed up the growth of bacteria and algae, consuming all of the dissolved oxygen. As a result, animal and plant diversity suffers.
 
Pollutants: Plastic fibres and microbeads
Sources: Plastic clothing and hair, beauty and skin products
 
These wind up in bodies of water like lakes, rivers and the ocean. Toxic substances are drawn to this area. Marine animals frequently eat them because they confuse them as natural food and the toxins spread up the food chain.
Agricultural pollutants
Pollutants: DDT (Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane)
Sources: Insecticides
 
It affects the central nervous system of animals, insects and humans. It accumulates in the food chain and impacts the top predators the most.
 
Pollutants: Nitrates and phosphates
Sources: Fertilisers
 
Bacteria and algae grow more quickly and consume all dissolved oxygen, reducing animal and plant diversity.
Industrial pollutants
Pollutants: Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium and arsenic
Sources: Chemical, textile and leather industries and leachate from open dumping of solid waste
 
Toxic to animals, plants and bacteria in the water. They pollute potable groundwater. Also negatively impacts human health.