Theory:

 S.No. Properties Acid Base 1. Taste Sour taste Bitter taste 2. Litmus test Blue litmus turns red. Red litmus turns blue. 3. Electrical conductivity Since their aqueous solutions contain ions, they conduct electricity. Conducts electricity just as acids can. 4. Reaction with metals Produces hydrogen gas when they react with active metals. $\begin{array}{l}\mathit{Mg}+{H}_{2}{\mathit{SO}}_{4}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\stackrel{}{⟶}\phantom{\rule{0.294em}{0ex}}\mathit{Mg}{\mathit{SO}}_{4}+{H}_{2}↑\\ \\ \mathit{Zn}+\mathit{HCl}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\stackrel{}{⟶}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}{\mathit{ZnCl}}_{2}+\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}{H}_{2}↑\end{array}$ Produces hydrogen gas and salt when they react with metals. $\mathit{Zn}+{\mathit{2NaOH}}_{2}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\stackrel{}{⟶}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}{\mathit{Na}}_{2}\mathit{Zn}{O}_{2}+{H}_{2}↑$ 5. Reaction with metallic oxide Salt and water are produced. $\mathit{CaO}+{H}_{2}{\mathit{SO}}_{4}\stackrel{}{⟶}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}{\mathit{CaSO}}_{4}+\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}{H}_{2}O$ Reacts with non-metallic oxides to produce salt and water. $\mathit{CaO}+{H}_{2}{\mathit{SO}}_{4}\stackrel{}{⟶}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}{\mathit{CaSO}}_{4}+\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}{H}_{2}O$ 6. Reaction with acid/base Acids and bases combine to form salt and water. ${\mathit{Ca}\left(\mathit{OH}\right)}_{2}+{\mathit{CO}}_{2}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\stackrel{}{⟶}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}{\mathit{CaCO}}_{3}+{H}_{2}O$ Acids and bases combine to form salt and water. ${\mathit{Ca}\left(\mathit{OH}\right)}_{2}+{\mathit{CO}}_{2}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\stackrel{}{⟶}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}{\mathit{CaCO}}_{3}+{H}_{2}O$ 7. pH < $$7$$ > $$7$$ 8. In aqueous solutions Produces $$H^+$$ ions. Produces $$OH^-$$ ions.

Uses of acids:
• Since it is used to make many other compounds, sulphuric acid is known as the "King of Chemicals." It is also used in car batteries.
• In toilets, hydrochloric acid is used as a cleaning agent.
• Citric acid is used to make effervescent salts and is also used as a food preservative.
• Fertilizers, dyes, colours and medicines are all made with nitric acid.
• Iron and manganese deposits on quartz crystals are removed with oxalic acid. It is also used to remove black stains and as wood bleach.
• In aerated beverages, carbonic acid is used.
• Baking powder has tartaric acid as a component.
Uses of bases:
• In the production of soap, sodium hydroxide is used.
• Buildings are whitewashed with calcium hydroxide.
• Magnesium hydroxide is a drug that is used to treat stomach problems.
• Grease stains on clothing are removed with ammonium hydroxide.