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Theory:

Chemistry in agriculture:
Agricultural chemistry involves:
  • Applying chemical and biochemical knowledge to agricultural production.
  • Processing raw materials into foods and beverages.
  • Environmental monitoring and remediation.
It deals with the scientific relation between plants, animals, bacteria and the environment.
  
(a) Goals of Agricultural chemistry:
  
Indian chemists and biochemists used their knowledge and improved modernised agricultural methods, including synthetic fertilizsrs, genetically changed crops, and equipment. It aims to produce enough nutritious food and sustainably feed the population while being efficient agents of our environment and ecosystem.
 
goal of Agri.jpg
Agricultural production
 
Based on the issues and challenges in agricultural production, agricultural chemistry mainly focusses on achieving the following:
  • Increase in crop yield and livestock
  • Improvement of food quality
  • Reducing the cost of food production
(b) Applications of agricultural chemistry:
Chemical principles and reactions are most generally used in agriculture to increase yield, protect crops from diseases and simplify the practice of agriculture.
Different applications are given below. 
 
Soil Testing:
  
Croplands may have various kinds of soil with differing pH. Soil pH is one of the main criteria for the selection of crops or remediation of earth. Soil testing involves the determination of pH, porosity and texture.
  
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Soil testing and plantation
  
Chemical Fertilisers:
Fertilisers are chemical compounds applied to crop fields to supply essential micro and macronutrients for crop growth.
Fertilisers include ammonium nitrate, calcium phosphate, urea, NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium).
 
fertilizer.jpg 
Fertiliser used for plantation
  
These fertilisers are used singly or in mixtures, depending on the nature of the soil.
 
Pesticides and Insecticides:
Crops are prone to diseases induced by pests and insects. Therefore, chemically prepared pesticides and insecticides are used to solve these issues.
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Pest controlling method
 
Chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates and carbamates are used as pesticides and insecticides.