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### Theory:

You have study in earlier chapters that elements can exist in nature as their isotopes.
Isotopes are atoms with a specific number of protons and electrons and a various number of neutrons.

Some isotopes are permanent and stay permanently. These are the elements that we see about us and find in nature. However, some isotopes are unstable, and they undergo disintegration by losing their energy in radiation.

Every element tries to achieve stability by giving, losing or gaining electrons (octet rule). Thus, the unstable isotopes of elements lose their energy in the form of radiation to become stable. This phenomenon is called Radioactive decay. The isotope which experiences radioactive decay is called Radioactive isotope or Radioisotope. This feature of isotopes is known as Radioactivity.

Radiochemistry is the learning of the chemistry of radioactive and non-radioactive isotopes. It has both natural and artificial isotopes.

Radioisotopes are used in various fields to study the nature of chemical reactions involving non-radioactive isotopes of elements.

i. Radioisotopes can easily be identified and measured quantitatively. So they are used in radiochemistry for several applications.
iii. In addition, it could also find applications in the medical field and environmental management. Let us list critical applications of radioisotopes.

It is a process by which the age of fossil wood or animal is determined using a C-$$14$$ isotope.
 Radioisotope Diagnosis used for Iodine-$$131$$ Location and detection of brain tumour, thyroid gland  disorder Sodium-$$24$$ Location of the blood clot and circulation disorders, pumping action of the heart Iron-$$59$$ Diagnosis of anaemia, pregnancy disorder Cobalt-$$60$$ Diagnosis of cancer Hydrogen-$$3$$ The human body's water content
 Radioisotope Treatment used for Gold-$$198$$ Cancer Iodine-$$131$$ Hyperthyroidism and cancer Phosphorous-$$32$$ Blood disorder and skin disease Cobalt-$$60$$ Cancer