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### Theory:

Sodium chloride ($$NaCl$$):

Sodium holds an atomic number of $$11$$ and an electronic configuration of $$2, 8, 1$$. Thus, it has one electron more than the nearest stable noble gas electronic configuration, Neon. As a result, sodium tends to lose one electron from its outermost shell and obtain a stable electronic configuration, resulting in a sodium cation ($$Na^+$$).

Ionic bond formation in sodium chloride

Chlorine holds an atomic number of $$17$$ and an electronic configuration of $$2, 8, 7$$. It has one lower electron than the closest stable noble gas electrical configuration - Argon. As a result, chlorine tends to gain one electron to achieve a stable electronic configuration, resulting in the formation of the chloride anion ($$Cl^-$$).

Ionic bond formation in sodium chlorine

When a sodium atom joins with a chlorine atom, one electron is transferred from the sodium atom to the chlorine atom, resulting in a sodium chloride molecule.Thus, both atoms have a stable octet electronic configuration.

Magnesium chloride($$MgCl_2$$):

Magnesium holds an atomic number of $$12$$, and its electronic configuration is $$2, 8, 2$$. Thus, it has two more electrons than the closest stable electronic configuration of a noble gas, Neon. As a result, magnesium tends to lose two electrons from its outermost shell and obtains a stable electronic configuration, resulting in magnesium cation ($$Mg^2{^+}$$).

Ionic bond formation in Magnesium chloride

When a magnesium atom joins two chlorine atoms, two electrons are transferred from the magnesium to the chlorine, resulting in a magnesium chloride molecule. Thus, both atoms have a stable octet electronic configuration.