Prawns are one of the most economically important shellfish resources of India.
The demand for these organisms is very high in local and international markets. Because of their great taste, they are predominantly served as food. Due to their popularity and marketing avenues in foreign countries, the demand for developing advanced technology and intensifying prawn culture in India is very high.
Types of prawn culture:
The various species of prawns different sizes are found in various water resources. The prawns that are selected for prawn culture on a commercial basis should have the following characteristics:
  • They should be good in size
  • These prawns should have a good weight
  • They should be available in plenty
  • They must be easily cultivable
Based on the type of water resource, prawn culture is of three types. They are as follows:
Marine water prawn culture:
The cultivation of  marine penaeid prawn is known as marine prawn culture or shrimp culture.
Penaeus indicus and Penaeus monodon are the two types of prawns cultivated in marine water.
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Marine water prawn culture
Freshwater prawn culture:
The rearing of freshwater prawns is known as freshwater prawn culture.
Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Macrobrachium malcomsonii are cultured in freshwater.
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Freshwater prawn culture
Methods of prawn culture:
Two different methods as follows are employed for prawn culture:
1. Seed collection and hatchery method:
In this method, the larvae and juveniles of prawn obtained by collection from natural resources like estuaries and backwaters or hatchery methods like controlled breading are reared and grown into adults.
2. Paddy cum prawn culture:
Paddy cum prawn culture and Pokkali culture is the oldest and traditional method of prawn culture which is practiced in Kerala. The low lying paddy fields found along the coastal areas serve as suitable grounds for prawn culture. In this method, the prawns are cultured in these fields after the harvest of paddy.