LEARNATHON
III

Competition for grade 6 to 10 students! Learn, solve tests and earn prizes!

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Theory:

The electric field (\(E\)) around the charge is the region in which an electric charge experiences an electric force.
Lines and arrowheads represent the direction of electric field. The electric field's direction corresponds to the direction of force acting on a small positive charge. As a result, the lines that depict the electric field are known as electric lines of force.
The electric lines of force are curved or straight paths along which a unit positive charge moves in the electric field.
Important!
Electric lines of force are imaginary lines.
The closeness of electric field lines determines the strength of an electric field. The lines of force are radially outwards for an isolated positive charge, whereas they are radially inwards for an isolated negative charge.
 
Fields-of-point-charges.svg
Electric lines of force for an isolated positive and negative charge
The electric field at a point is a measure of force acting on a unit positive charge placed at that point. A positive charge experiences force in the direction of the electric field, whereas a negative charge experiences a force opposite to the direction of the electric field.
positive.svg
Electric lines of force between two positive charges
 
negative electric lines.png
Electric lines of force between two negative charges
 
positive and negative.png
Electric lines of force between positive and negative charge
VFPt_capacitor.svg
Electric lines of force between two charged plates
Electric potential:
Despite the fact that the electric forces are either attractive or repulsive, the charges are kept together. There is an electric field around the region of an electric charge. In this field, other charges also experience force and vice versa. The work done on the charges that hold them together results in a quantity called electric potential.
Electric potential is a measure of the work done on a unit positive charge to bring it to that point against all electrical forces.
2 (1).png
Electric potential
Reference:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/Fields-of-point-charges.svg
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/33/VFPt_dipole_electric_manylines.svg/600px-VFPt_dipole_electric_manylines.svg.png
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e7/VFPt_capacitor.svg
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/75/VFPt_charged-wires_2xpositive.svg