Theory:

We all have tasted milk, right? In everyday life, the products we use, such as mayonnaise, jelly, and butter are colloidal solution.
 
The dispersed phase and the dispersion medium make up a colloidal solution, which is a heterogeneous system.
 
For example, the dispersion medium or dispersed phase might be a solid, liquid, or gas. There are a total of eight possible combinations.
 
It is impossible to combine gas in gas since it always forms a true solution.
A colloidal solution is a heterogeneous mixture.
  
In the colloidal solution, the particles of a colloid uniformly spread throughout the solution.
 
A colloidal solution contains finely divided particles (Approximately \(1\) to \(1000\) millimicrons in size), dispersed within a continuous medium in such a manner that prevents them from being filtered easily or settled rapidly.
Example:
1. Milk
2. Hair cream
3. Toothpaste
4. Fog, Mist, Smog
5. Cheese butter
6. Paint etc.
Properties of a colloidal solution:
 
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Colloidal solution
  
1. A colloidal solution is a heterogeneous mixture.
2. A colloidal solution is quite stable so that it does not settle down when left undisturbed.
3. The particle here is so tiny that you cannot see them with naked eyes.
 
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Tyndall effect
 
4. Colloidal particles can scatter a beam of light passing through it and make its path visible.
 
Classification of colloids based on the physical state of the dispersed phase and dispersion medium:
  
a. Dispersed phase: The dispersed phase is described as a phase that is scattered or present in the form of colloidal particles.
 
b. Dispersed medium: The dispersed phase is the medium in which colloidal particles are distributed.
 
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Classification of colloids and its example
 
S.No
Name
Dispersed phase
(Solute)
Dispersed medium
(Solvent)
    Example
1
Solid sol
Solid
Solid
Colored glass, Gems, Alloys. 
2
Sol
Solid
Liquid
Paint, Fruit jellies, Dye, Ink, Egg white
3
Aerosol
Solid
Gas
Smoke
4
Gel
Liquid
Solid
Cheese, Butter.
5
Emulsion
Liquid
Liquid
Milk, Oil in water, Mayonnaise, Face cream.
6
Aerosol
Liquid
Gas
Fog, Mist, Clouds, Body sprays.
7
Foam
Gas
Liquid
Soap lather, Shaving cream, Coffee froth
8
Solid foam
Gas
Solid
Rubber, Sponge, Cake, Bread
Reference: