Theory:

The World Health Organisation in the year\(1970\)has given a schedule of immunisation for children. This schedule is carried out in almost all countries. The immunisation schedule indicates the age at which the vaccine should be administered to protect the children from infectious diseases.

\(BCG\) (Bacillus Calmette Guerin): This was prepared by two French workers Calmette and Guerin (\(1908-1921\)). It was developed for over thirteen years. The bacilli are weakened and used for immunisation against tuberculosis.
 
\(DPT\) (Triple Vaccine): It is a combined vaccine for protection against Diphtheria, Pertussis (whooping cough) and Tetanus.
 
\(MMR\): Mumps, Measles, Rubella vaccine gives protection against viral infections.
 
\(DT\): It is a dual antigen or combined antigen. It gives protection from Diphtheria and Tetanus.
 
\(TT\) (Tetanus Toxoid): Toxin of Tetanus bacteria
 
\(TAB\): Combined vaccine for typhoid, Para typhi A and Para typhi B.
Vaccination schedule:
Age
Vaccine
Dosage
New bornBCG\(1\) st dose
\(15\) daysOral polio\(1\) st dose
\(6\) th weekDPT and polio\(1\) st dose
\(10\) th weekDPT and polio\(2\) nd dose
\(14\) th weekDPT and polio\(3\) rd dose
\(9\) - \(12\) monthsMeasles\(1\) st dose
\(18\) -\(24\) monthsDPT and Polio\(1\) st dose
\(15\)  months - \(2\)  yearsMMR\(1\) st dose
\(2\)  - \(3\)  yearsTAB\(2\) doses at \(1\) month gap
\(4\)  - \(6\)  yearsDT and Polio\(2\) nd booster
\(10\) th yearTT and TAB\(1\) st dose
\(16\) th yearTT and TAB\(2\) nd booster
  • According to WHO, immunisation currently prevents 2-3 million deaths every year.
  • A new vaccine against dengue fever has been licensed in many countries.
  • In 2018, the first vaccine to protect children against malaria will be piloted in three African countries.
  • Globally, the mortality rate due to measles is reduced by \(7\)%.
LouisPasteur18221895microbiologistandchemistWellcomeV0026978.jpg
Louis Pasteur
 
Louis Pasteur was an \(18th\)-century French chemist and microbiologist best known for vaccination and pasteurisation. He coined the term vaccine. Pasteur developed a vaccine against chickenpox, cholera, anthrax, etc. In \(1885\) Pasteur administered his first vaccine to a young boy named Joseph Meister, repeatedly bitten by a rabid dog. The boy was inoculated with less virulent or weakened rabies virus preparations and was saved. He discovered the basis for attenuation, the process of weakening the virulence of pathogenic organisms without losing the capacity to induce immunity.
Reference:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Louis_Pasteur_(1822_ _1895),_microbiologist_and_chemist_Wellcome_V0026978.jpg