Theory:

Inequality and Discrimination:
Inequality means difference in treatment.
The different forms of inequalities are:
  • Caste inequality,
  • Religious inequality,
  • Race inequality or Gender inequality.
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These inequalities give rise to discrimination.
Discrimination can be defined as negative actions towards people. Discrimination can happen based on colour, class, religion, gender etc.
Example:
Thinking boys are smarter than girls, treating dark-skinned people differently from fair-skinned people.
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Our Constitution prohibits discrimination,
Important!
Article 15 (1) of the Constitution states that the State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.
Caste Discrimination:
In India, the caste system is the most dominant reason for inequality and discrimination. From ancient times, society was divided into different groups based on occupation, known as Varnas.
In India, many people fought against caste oppression. Among them, the most prominent was Dr.B.R.Ambedkar. He belonged to a depressed family and suffered discrimination throughout his childhood. He fought actively for equality among the citizens of India.
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Gender Discrimination:
Gender discrimination is a situation in which people are treated differently simply because they are male or female. It also refers to health, education, economic and political inequalities between men and women in India.
Example:
A girl is not allowed to go to college after finishing her schooling. Similarly, most girls are not allowed to select a career of their choice; instead, they are forced into marriage. In some families, girls are not allowed to wear modern dresses while boys in such families often wear modern dresses.
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Religious discrimination:
Religious discrimination is unequal treatment of an individual or group based on their beliefs.
The problem of religious discrimination has been there among people of different religions for thousands of years. Some people are not allowed to enter public places; especially places of worship, because they belong to another religion. Some religious people often conflict with each other because of their rituals and way of life.
 
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Socio-Economic Inequality:
The income inequality is much higher than the inequality in human development. The low-income districts are associated with low industrial growth, low agricultural productivity and low human development. Similarly, the districts with low literacy rate are found to be with lower sex ratio.