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Floods are high stream flows, that overlap natural or artificial banks of a river or a stream and are markedly higher than the usual flow as well as the inundation of low land.
Types of floods:
1. Flash floods: Such floods occur within six hours during heavy rainfall.
2. River floods: Such floods are caused by precipitation over large catchment areas or by the melting of snow or sometimes both.
3. Coastal floods: Sometimes floods are associated with cyclone high tides and tsunamis.
River Flood
Causes of floods:
 Torrential Rainfall
 Encroachment of rivers bank.
 Excessive rainfall in the catchment.
 Inefficient engineering design in the construction of embankments, dams, and canals.
Effects of floods:
 Destruction of drainage system
 Water pollution
 Soil erosion 
 Stagnation of water
 Loss of agricultural land and cattle
 Loss of life and spread of contagious diseases.