Theory:

Reign of Firos tughlaq
Post the demise of Mohammad-bin-tughlaq, Firos tughlaq, the son of Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq's brother, took over the empire. He showed little interest in regaining the territories that have been lost during these years, and he could not suppress the rebellions.
 
During his period, the positions of army and nobility were made hereditary. In addition to that, the Iqta system was also made hereditary.
 
tuglaq map.jpg
Tughlaq Empire

Among other sultans, Firos was more generous and compassionate towards people. He also took advice from Sufis ( religious scholars) and rewarded them fittingly.
 
To earn the Goodwill of theologians, the Sultan took steps like prohibiting Muslim women from going out for worship and giving concessions to the theologian community.

He also established charities to help people. He built colleges, mosques and hospitals. He once declined an invite from the Bahman sultan to intervene in Deccan affairs. Later he banned barbaric punishments and abolished taxes that are not in line with Muslim law.
Reforms undertaken by Firos tughlaq
  • Firos showed keen interest in promoting agriculture and enhancing the lives of peasants by waving their debts. He also built many canals for irrigational purposes.
Adha and Bitch ( Coins ): The Sultan introduced a new type of coins, namely Adha ( 50% of jital) and Bitch ( 23% of jital ).
  • Architecture witnessed its golden period during the reign of Firos Tughlaq, where he built 1200 new gardens and restored 30 of the old gardens that Alauddin Khalji built.
Kharkanas: These are Royal workshops established by the Sultan, where thousands of slaves were used for construction purposes.
  • To take his penchant for architecture to greater heights, he also established numerous towns Firosabad, Jaunpur, Hissar and Firospur, to name a few.
Sharb: This is a kind of irrigation tax imposed by Firos, the first Sultan to impose this tax.
  • Despite employing strenuous efforts and peaceful methods to consolidate the empire, his life was miserable during his last days as his son Muhammad Khan rebelled against him to capture the throne. Firos breathed his last at the age of 83 in \(1388\).