Ennayiram was a Vedic college established by Rajendra I, which is now at Villupuram district. About 340 students were learning the Vedas, grammar and Upanishads under 14 teachers. This was later followed by his successors, and as a result, two more such colleges had been founded, at Tirubuvanai (near present-day Puducherry) and Tirumukkoodal (in present-day Chengalpattu district), in 1048 and 1067, respectively.
The great literary works Periyapuranam and Kamba Ramayanam belong to this period.
Azhagiya Narasimaperumal temple-Ennayiram, Villupuram.
Cholas were sea merchants who settled in port towns up and down the West Coast. Mani-gramattar merchants are said to be involved in inland trade. Both groups eventually merged under the ai-nutruvar and disai-ayirattu-ai-nutruvar banners, with the head guild based in Ayyavole, Karnataka. This ai-nutruvar guild was in charge of the maritime trade in Southeast Asia.
Elephant tusks,coral, clear glass, betel nuts, cardamom, opaque glass, and cotton stuff with coloured silk threads were imported through overseas trade with South-East Asian countries. Sandalwood, ebony, condiments, precious stones, pepper, oil, paddy, grains, and salt were among the products exported from here.