The capital of the Pandya kings was Madurai. Madurai is known as Koodal in Tamil culture. Popular names for kings include Koodal-kon and Koodal Nagar Kavalan. The Pandyas used their horses to gain a military advantage over their neighbours. They bought these horses from Arabs with whom they had business and cultural links.
An Arabian trader with a horse.
The rulers of Pandya dynasty claimed to be ruling in accordance with the Manu Sastra. This doctrine endorsed the social order in society. Brahmin settlements named Mangalam or Chatur-Vedi-Mangalam were built with irrigation facilities. The actual landowners are known as the Bumiputtirar, also known as the Vellalar. They were referred as nattu-makkal because they were initially locals. Cittira Meli Periyanattar is the name of the group's communal assembly.