Theory:

State:
  
The capital of the Pandya kings was Madurai. Madurai is known as Koodal in Tamil culture. Popular names for kings include Koodal-kon and Koodal Nagar Kavalan. The Pandyas used their horses to gain a military advantage over their neighbours. They bought these horses from Arabs with whom they had business and cultural links.
 
arabian.jpg
An Arabian trader with a horse.

The rulers of Pandya dynasty claimed to be ruling in accordance with the Manu Sastra. This doctrine endorsed the social order in society. Brahmin settlements named Mangalam or Chatur-Vedi-Mangalam were built with irrigation facilities. The actual landowners are known as the Bumiputtirar, also known as the Vellalar. They were referred as nattu-makkal because they were initially locals. Cittira Meli Periyanattar is the name of the group's communal assembly.
 
Royal officials:
  
A group of officials carried out the royal orders. Uttara-Mantri was the prime minister. Ministers included historical figures such as Manickavasagar, Kulaciraiyar, and Marankari. Eluttu-mandapam was the name given to the royal secretariat. Maran-eyinan, sattan-Ganapathy, enathi-sattan, tira-Tiran, murthi-eyinan, and others were among the most esteemed officials. The titles of military commanders were Palli-Velan, parantakan-Palli-Velan, Maran-adittan and tennavan-tamilvel.
 
Administrative divisions:
  
Pandy nadu, like Chola state, was divided into several provinces called Vala-nadu, which were divided further into nadu and kurram. The nattars were the administrative authorities of nadu. Mangalam, nagaram, ur, and kudi were settlements in Nadu and Kurram that housed various social classes.
 
Village administration:
  
An inscription from Manor (Tirunelveli district) dated \(800 AD (CE)\) describes village administration. It appears to be modelled after the Chola system of local government, which included village assemblies and committees. Both civil and military authority seems to have been vested in the same person.