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Theory:

During Disaster Phase:
Response:
 
The second part of the catastrophe management cycle is disaster response. It comprises a variety of features, including warning/evacuation, search and rescue, immediate help, damage assessment, ongoing assistance, and infrastructure rehabilitation or construction (i.e. provisional storm drains or diversion dams).
The objective of disaster response should be to provide urgent aid in order to keep people alive, improve their health, and boost their morale.
Providing particular but limited support, such as assisting refugees with transportation, temporary shelter, and food, to constructing semi-permanent settlements in camps and other sites are examples of such assistance. It could also entail making initial repairs to damaged infrastructure or diverting traffic.
 
During the reaction phase, the focus is on keeping people safe, preventing future disasters, and addressing basic human needs until more permanent and long-term solutions can be developed.
 
The government or governments whose territory the disaster has occurred bear the primary duty for meeting these demands and responding to a disaster.
 
Furthermore, humanitarian organizations are frequently active at this stage of the disaster management cycle, especially in countries where the government lacks the means to adequately respond to the demands.
The Post- Disaster Phase:
Recovery:
 
After a calamity, the "recovery" phase begins. This phase involves restoring an organization after it has been impacted by a calamity. The organization has attained some level of physical, environmental, economic, and social stability at this point.

Rehabilitation and Reconstruction:
 
Disaster recovery necessitates rehabilitation and reconstruction efforts. They serve as a vital link between disaster relief and long-term development.
However, the two activities do not have the same connotation. Local services relating to the fulfillment of immediate needs must be restored as part of the rehabilitation process. It entails a gradual return to pre-disaster conditions.
It refers to the steps done in the aftermath of a disaster to restore essential services, assist victims in self-help attempts to repair physical damage, restore community facilities, restart economic activity, and give support for the survivors' psychological and social well-being.
 
It focuses on resuming more or less typical life patterns for the affected population. It's possible to think of it as a stage between instant relief and big long-term development.
 
Recovery planning:
 
The development of a collection of measures to aid a community in rebuilding after a disaster is defined as post-disaster recovery planning. Recovery planning can also be conceived of as creating a blueprint for the community's reconstruction following a tragedy. Communities can participate in a variety of activities to help with post-disaster recovery.
 
Essential elements of hazards:
 
Hazard mitigation requires the following steps:

1. Hazard identification

2. Vulnerability analysis

3. Creating a hazard-mitigation plan

4. Execution of hazard mitigation initiatives and activities
 
Warning system in India:
 
In the Indian Ocean, the Department of Science and Technology (DST), the Department of Space (DOS), and the CSIR Laboratories have set up an early warning system for tsunamis and storm surges.